The Koothantavar cult is an ancient Tamil folklore tradition that venerates the Thirunangai (Third Gender) communities. Transgenders in Sangam Tamil society (3rd century BCE – 3rd century CE) occupied privileged positions. They had a distinct cultural identity and acceptance. It was with the advent of the Post-Renaissance Western influence that these communities began to be discriminated against. This work is about the Thirunangai communities, their esoteric symbols, rituals, and practices.